What are Fatty Bases for Suppositories and Its Benefits?
Suppositories are used for vaginal and rectal drug delivery and provide several advantages compared to the other antiviral dosage forms. Fatty bases, also known as oleaginous bases include synthetic triglyceride mixtures and theobroma oil. Fatty bases for suppositories as a drug delivery vehicle is a new formulation in the context of antiviral drug delivery.
Suppositories are used for vaginal and rectal drug delivery and provide several advantages compared to the other antiviral dosage forms. The current designs of suppositories have unified active pharmaceutical ingredients in existing formulation designs without any optimization. Today, the emerging suppository development is focused on improving the current classical design to improve drug delivery and is also poised to open suppositories to an extensive range of drugs, which includes antiretroviral products. Thus, the ongoing research into for suppositories design and development is providing significant potential for antiretroviral fatty based for suppositories drug delivery.
According to the Research Dive published report, the global fatty bases for suppositories market is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of 2.7% during the forecast period. The fat-based excipients play a crucial role in drug delivery, mainly in geriatric and pediatric and patients.
What are Suppositories?
Suppositories are defined as medicated, solid bodies of various shapes and sizes suitable for introduction in body cavities. The medicament is assimilated into a base such as the cocoa butter that melts at normal body temperature, or into PEG or glycerinated gelatin, which dissolves slowly in the mucous secretions. Particularly, suppositories are suited for producing local action and can also be used to exert a mechanical effect or produce a systemic effect to facilitate emptying the lower bowel.
The ideal suppository base such as fatty bases should be nonirritating, nontoxic, inert, easily formed by molding or compression, and compatible with medicaments. It should also disintegrate or dissolve in the existence of mucous secretions or else melt at body temperatures to allow for the discharge of the medication. The fatty bases for suppository play a crucial role in both the extent and rate of the release of medications as with the ointment bases.
Fatty Bases for Suppositories
Fatty bases, also known as oleaginous bases, include synthetic triglyceride mixtures and theobroma oil. Cocoa butter or theobroma oil is used as a suppository base mainly because, in large measure, it accomplishes the requirements of an ideal base. At normal room temperatures of 59° to 77°F (15° to 25°C), it is a hard amorphous solid, but at 86° to 95°F (30° to 35°C), i.e., it melts to a bland at body temperature, non-irritating oil. Therefore, in warm climates, fatty bases for suppositories should be refrigerated.
A special attention should be given to two factors while preparing for suppositories with base of cocoa butter. Firstly, this base should not be heated above 95°F (35°C) as the cocoa butter is a polymorphic compound. And if this compound is inflamed will convert to a metastable structure that melts in the 77° to 86°F (25° to 30°C) range. Thus, the finished suppository would not be usable as it melts at room temperature.
The second factor is the melting point change caused by adding particular drugs to fatty bases suppositories. For instance, phenol and chloral hydrate tend to lower the melting point. Thus, it may be necessary to add beeswax or spermaceti to raise the melting point back to the desired range of finished suppositories.
Triglycerides with newer synthetics consist of hydrogenated oils of vegetable. The advantages of triglycerides compared to the cocoa butter is that they do not show polymorphism. However, they are more expensive. Some of the names may denote a series of bases. In a series, the bases are varied to give a range of melting points. For instance, Fattibase® is a base with single entity that consists of triglycerides from coconut, palm kernel, and palm oils. On the other hand, the Wecobee® is a series of bases made from triglycerides of coconut oil.
Properties and Benefits of Fatty Bases for Suppositories
It is solid at normal room temperature and melts in the body with a melting point range of 30 to 36oC.
Rapid setting on cooling and ready liquefaction on warming.
Does not produce irritation, i.e. blandness.
Miscibility with many ingredients.
The Bottom Line
Fatty bases for suppositories as a drug delivery vehicle is a new formulation in the context of antiviral drug delivery. And while fatty bases for suppositories may be better known for their disadvantages, understanding these disadvantages is key in overcoming them. Fatty bases for suppositories offer several advantages over most dosage forms owing to their low cost, adaptable formulation form, and ease of administration.
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