Semiconductor Packaging: Basic Types, Functions, and Covid-19 Impact
A diverse range of semiconductor packages are available from a single chip package to System in Package (SIP). In SIP package, quite a lot of chips are used to form an electronic system. Semiconductor chips are used in almost all systems and appliances in different spheres including industrial, information, home appliances, transportation, and medical systems.
A semiconductor package is a container of one or more distinct integrated circuits or semiconductor devices. These little cases are made by metal, glass, plastic, and ceramic materials. Individual components are fabricated on semiconductor wafers before they are cubed into die, tested, and packaged.
The package offers a way to connect it to the peripheral environment, which include printed circuit board, via leads such as lands, balls, or pins. It also provides security against risks such as chemical contamination, mechanical impact, and exposure to light.
A diverse range of semiconductor packages are available from a single chip package to System in Package (SIP). In SIP package, quite a lot of chips are used to form an electronic system.
Semiconductor chips are used in almost all systems and appliances in different spheres including industrial, information, home appliances, transportation, and medical systems. This is the reason semiconductor packaging is rising in demand across industries. According to a report by Research Dive, the global semiconductor packaging market is anticipated to garner a revenue of $52,269.8 million at a CAGR of 7.0% by the end of 2028. Development of imaginative frameworks and a developing end-client tendency are the two main factors the semiconductor packaging market is looking forward to.
Although, semiconductor packaging types are varied in their forms, they all perform the same basic functions. Some of these functions are mentioned below:
1. Safeguards the Semiconductor Chips from Harsh Weather
Semiconductor chips react in a vulnerable way when exposed to the environment. The package ensures the safety of the chip from weather conditions such as humidity, dust, light, and chemical substances.
2. Enables Electrical Connectivity
The size between semiconductor chip and printed wiring board (PWB) never matches. In addition, the terminal material of the chip is not suitable for connecting. The external terminals of the packaging are appropriate for fusing the PWB to the semiconductor chip.
3. Disperse Heat
The semiconductor package prevents the chips from malfunctioning during the operation by dissipating the temperature generated by the device.
4. Advance Handling
The mechanical and manual handling become easier depending upon the package size. In electronics, packaging indicates the design and production of insertions for electronic devices ranging from individual semiconductor devices to an entire system.
Types of Semiconductor Packaging
- Chip-Scale Package
A chip scale package is a kind of assimilated circuit package. The chip scale package is mandatory to have an area greater than 1.2 times that of the die, and it must be a single-die along with a direct surface mountable package. The die may be mounted on an interposer upon which balls or pads are formed like flip chip ball grid array packaging. The pads may be printed or impressed directly onto the silicon wafer, which will result in a package closer to the size of the silicon die. The end package is called a wafer-level chip-scale package or wafer-level package (WLP).
- Dual In-line Package
It is an electronic component package designed with two parallel rows of electrical connecting pins and a rectangular housing. The package can be through-hole mounted to a PCB (printed circuit board). Extremely complex circuits require more signal and more power supply leads.
Impact of Covid-19 on the Market
The global semiconductor packaging market has been impacted in a negative way during the coronavirus pandemic. Due to the restrictions imposed all across the countries to curb the spread of the virus, the demand of the product has been diminished. The temporary halt in the supply chain has also added to the declining state of the semiconductor packaging industry.
Once the pandemic is over and restrictions are removed, the demand of consumer electronics will soar again leading to the surge in the demand for semiconductor packaging. Moreover, the big companies are developing various strategies to implement the advanced technologies in the manufacturing of these packages.
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