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Underground Gas Storage Market Report


Underground Gas Storage Market by Product (Natural Gas, Hydrogen, and Others), Type (Depleted Gas Reservoir, Aquifer Reservoir, Salt Caverns, and Others), and Region (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and LAMEA): Global Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecast, 2023-2032


Pages: 250

Oct 2023

Underground Gas Storage Overview

Underground gas storage refers to the practice of storing natural gas or other gases in underground geological formations, such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs, salt caverns, and aquifers.

Underground gas storage helps ensure a consistent and reliable supply of natural gas, especially during periods of high demand, supply disruptions, or extreme weather conditions. Gas storage facilities provide flexibility to balance fluctuations in demand and supply. Gas can be injected into storage during periods of low demand and withdrawn when demand is high, helping to stabilize prices and maintain a steady flow of gas to consumers.

Global Underground Gas Storage Market Analysis

The global underground gas storage market size was $xx million in xx and is predicted to grow with a CAGR of xx, by generating a revenue of $xx million by xx.

COVID-19 Impact on Global Underground Gas Storage Market

The pandemic led to widespread lockdowns, reduced industrial activity, and decreased energy demand. As a result, the demand for natural gas, including stored gas, decreased in many regions. Storage operators faced challenges in managing their inventory levels as demand dropped. The drop in demand and the uncertainty caused by the pandemic contributed to increased price volatility in energy markets, including natural gas. The reduced demand and oversupply situations led to lower gas prices, impacting the economics of gas storage. Restrictions on movement and trade disrupted supply chains, affecting the maintenance and construction of storage facilities. Delays in maintenance and expansion projects could have implications for the operational capacity of storage facilities.

As economies recovered and industrial activity resumes, demand for natural gas is rebounding. Underground gas storage facilities playing crucial role in meeting the increased demand during the recovery phase, as stored gas can be quickly withdrawn to stabilize supply. Gas storage facilities can help stabilize energy markets by providing a buffer against supply fluctuations and sudden spikes in demand. This can help prevent extreme price volatility as economies regain stability. The pandemic highlighted the strategic importance of energy security and reliable supply chains. Governments and energy companies might consider investing in gas storage infrastructure to enhance energy resilience and mitigate the impacts of future disruptions.

Growing Usage of Underground Gas Storage Facilities for Energy Demand and Supply to Drive the Market Growth

Underground gas storage facilities provide a means to balance fluctuations in energy demand and supply. As energy demand varies due to seasonal changes, weather patterns, and industrial activities, these storage facilities enable the smooth delivery of natural gas to meet peak demand periods. Ensuring a stable and reliable supply of energy is a primary driver for gas storage. Underground storage facilities act as strategic reserves, capable of addressing unexpected disruptions in supply due to geopolitical events, natural disasters, or infrastructure failures. Underground gas storage helps mitigate price volatility in energy markets. During times of high demand or supply disruptions, stored gas can be withdrawn to stabilize prices, preventing sudden spikes that could impact consumers and industries. The flexibility of gas storage facilities allows for the efficient management of energy systems. These facilities enable gas to be stored during periods of low demand and injected into the grid when demand increases, contributing to grid stability. Government policies and regulations that prioritize energy security, grid stability, and environmental sustainability can incentivize investments in gas storage infrastructure. Regulatory frameworks that encourage storage development contribute to market growth.

Financial Concerns to Restrain Market Growth

Establishing underground gas storage facilities involves significant upfront costs, including drilling, infrastructure development, and safety measures. These costs can deter potential investors and operators, especially in regions with limited financial resources. Not all geological formations are suitable for gas storage. The availability of suitable depleted reservoirs, salt caverns, or aquifers varies from region to region. Geological constraints can limit the expansion of storage capacity in certain areas. Obtaining permits and regulatory approvals for underground gas storage projects can be complex and time-consuming. Environmental concerns related to groundwater contamination, gas leakage, and land use can lead to public opposition and regulatory hurdles. Proper sealing and monitoring are critical to prevent gas migration or leakage from storage sites, which can pose safety hazards, environmental risks, and negative public perceptions. Ensuring the integrity of storage facilities requires ongoing investment in maintenance and monitoring technologies. The profitability of underground gas storage is influenced by energy market dynamics, including natural gas prices and supply-demand fluctuations. Volatile market conditions can impact the economic viability of storage projects and discourage investment. Underground gas storage faces competition from alternative energy storage technologies, such as batteries and pumped hydro storage, especially for short-term and grid-balancing applications. These technologies are gaining attention due to advancements and falling costs.

Advancements in Energy Storage Solutions to Drive Excellent Opportunities

As the world shifts toward renewable energy sources like solar and wind, the need for flexible energy storage solutions becomes paramount. Underground gas storage can complement intermittent renewables by providing backup power during periods of low renewable generation. The emerging hydrogen economy requires efficient storage solutions. Underground gas storage facilities could be repurposed to store hydrogen, contributing to the development of a clean energy ecosystem. Underground storage facilities can play a role in CCS projects by storing captured carbon dioxide (CO2) in depleted reservoirs, contributing to emissions reduction efforts and environmental sustainability. With the increasing complexity of energy markets, underground gas storage can enable energy traders and companies to buy gas during low-demand periods and sell it during high-demand periods, capitalizing on price differentials. Gas storage facilities can offer demand response services to help balance the electricity grid by injecting or withdrawing gas based on grid needs, thus enhancing grid stability and reliability. Governments and energy companies recognize the importance of strategic energy reserves for national security. Expanding or upgrading existing storage facilities could provide opportunities for long-term contracts and public-private partnerships. Innovation in gas storage technologies, such as improved well design, monitoring systems, and enhanced geological modeling, can enhance the efficiency, safety, and capacity of underground storage facilities.

Global Underground Gas Storage Market Share, by Product, 2022

The natural gas sub-segment accounted for the highest share in 2022. Natural gas demand varies significantly between seasons due to heating needs in winter and cooling needs in summer. Underground storage allows surplus gas to be stored during low-demand periods and withdrawn during peak demand, ensuring a stable supply. Underground storage helps manage natural gas price volatility. Gas can be stored when prices are low and withdrawn when prices rise, mitigating the impact of market fluctuations on consumers and industries. Underground gas storage enhances energy security by providing a strategic reserve that can be tapped into during emergencies, supply interruptions, or geopolitical events, ensuring a reliable supply of energy. Natural gas storage facilities offer grid operators the ability to balance supply and demand on the electricity grid by quickly adjusting gas injection and withdrawal based on real-time needs. Industries rely on natural gas for various processes. Underground storage ensures a steady supply, preventing disruptions in industrial operations and supporting economic activity. Natural gas is used for electricity generation, industrial processes, and residential heating. Underground storage provides flexibility to balance fluctuations in demand, maintain energy system stability, and prevent supply disruptions.


Global Underground Gas Storage Market Share, by Type, 2022


The depleted gas reservoir sub-segment accounted for the highest share in 2022. Depleted reservoirs have proven geological characteristics that make them suitable for gas storage. These reservoirs have already held hydrocarbons for significant periods, demonstrating their ability to hold fluids securely. The geology of these formations, such as the porosity and permeability of the rock, is favorable for gas storage. Regulatory approvals for gas storage in depleted reservoirs are often smoother and quicker compared to creating storage from scratch. Since these reservoirs have been previously used for hydrocarbon production, the necessary permits and environmental assessments may have already been obtained. Using depleted reservoirs for gas storage reduces the risk of leakage or migration of gas, as the geological formations have already demonstrated their ability to contain hydrocarbons over time. This enhances the safety and integrity of the storage operation. Depleted reservoirs allow for relatively quick injection and withdrawal of gas. This responsiveness is crucial for meeting sudden changes in demand or supply, such as during extreme weather events or supply disruptions. Depleted reservoirs can often offer significant storage capacity due to their size and the amount of gas they originally contained. This is particularly important for ensuring energy security and supply stability.

Global Underground Gas Storage Market Share, by Region, 2022

The Europe region generated the highest revenue in 2022. Europe's high dependence on natural gas imports, particularly from Russia, has driven the need for robust energy security measures. Underground gas storage facilities play a critical role in ensuring a stable supply during disruptions in gas imports. Europe has a well-established energy infrastructure and a history of gas exploration and production. Many depleted gas reservoirs and other geological formations are repurposed for gas storage due to their suitability. Europe's liberalized energy markets encourage competition and flexibility. Underground gas storage provides traders and energy companies with opportunities for arbitrage and risk management. Europe's interconnected gas pipelines and storage facilities enable gas to be moved and shared across borders. This supports regional cooperation and supply optimization.

Competitive Scenario in the Global Underground Gas Storage Market

There are several major players functioning in the highly competitive global underground gas storage market. In order to increase their market presence and boost their product portfolios gas storage operators carefully manage the injection and withdrawal rates to optimize the use of their storage capacity. They monitor demand trends, weather forecasts, and market prices to determine the most advantageous times for injecting or withdrawing gas. Storage companies often enter into supply contracts with gas producers, utilities, and energy traders. These contracts outline terms for capacity reservation, injection and withdrawal rates, and pricing structures, providing revenue certainty and stability.

Some of the leading underground gas storage market players are ADNOC, Baker Hughes Company, Chart Industries, Enbridge Inc., NAFTA a. s., NOV Inc., Royal Vopak, TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Uniper SE, and Weatherford.



Historical Market Estimations


Base Year for Market Estimation


Forecast Timeline for Market Projection


Geographical Scope

North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and LAMEA

Segmentation by Product

  • Natural Gas
  • Hydrogen
  • Others

Segmentation by Type

  • Depleted Gas Reservoir
  • Aquifer Reservoir
  • Salt Caverns
  • Others

Key Companies Profiled

  • Baker Hughes Company
  • Chart Industries
  • Enbridge Inc.
  • NAFTA a. s.
  • NOV Inc.
  • Royal Vopak
  • TransCanada PipeLines Ltd.
  • Uniper SE
  • Weatherford

Frequently Asked Questions

A. The size of the underground gas storage market was over $xx billion in xx and is expected to expand at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of xx from xx to xx.

A. ADNOC, Baker Hughes Company, and Chart Industries are some of the key players in the global underground gas storage market.

A. Europe possesses great investment opportunities for investors in the future.

A. Asia-Pacific is expected to offer significant investment opportunities in the future in the underground gas storage market.

A. Inventory management and peak shaving are the key strategies opted by the operating companies in this market.

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