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Underground Hydrogen Storage Market Report


Underground Hydrogen Storage Market by Type (Porous Media Storage, Salt Caverns, and Engineered Cavities), and Region (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and LAMEA): Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecast, 2023-2032


Pages: 310

Oct 2023

Underground Hydrogen Storage Overview

Underground hydrogen storage is a pivotal technology for efficiently storing excess renewable energy and enabling a more sustainable energy system. This method involves injecting hydrogen into naturally occurring geological formations, such as depleted gas reservoirs or salt caverns. By utilizing these underground spaces, hydrogen can be stored for extended periods until needed, helping to balance energy supply and demand. This storage approach addresses the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources like solar and wind, allowing excess energy to be converted into hydrogen via electrolysis and stored until its required. When demand rises the stored hydrogen can be retrieved and used in various sectors including transportation & industry and power generation, thereby reducing carbon emissions. 

Global Underground Hydrogen Storage Market Analysis

The global underground hydrogen storage market size was $2,214.8 MCM in 2022 and is predicted to grow with a CAGR of 10.5%, by generating a revenue of $6,008.6 MCM by 2032.

COVID-19 Impact on Global Underground Hydrogen Storage Market

The COVID-19 pandemic exerted noticeable effects on underground hydrogen storage market. The energy sector, including hydrogen storage, experienced disruptions due to lockdowns, supply chain interruptions, and reduced industrial activities. Such challenges temporarily slowed the development and utilization of underground hydrogen storage facilities. The market, impacted by pandemic uncertainties, witnessed delayed investments and project timelines. Industries had to reprioritize resources, affecting hydrogen storage projects. Nevertheless, governments' continued focus on sustainable energy sources and recovery plans has sustained interest in hydrogen storage. The pandemic highlighted the importance of reliable energy systems. Underground hydrogen storage, known for its capacity to store excess renewable energy, stands to gain prominence as countries strive to bolster energy resilience. The market's recovery is tied to global efforts to transition towards cleaner energy and reduce carbon emissions. In the long term, the shift towards green hydrogen, generated using renewable sources, drives the demand for efficient storage solutions. Innovation in technology and collaborations within the sector could accelerate market growth. Despite the pandemic-induced setbacks, underground hydrogen storage's potential to support renewable integration positions it favorable in a transitioning energy landscape.

Advantages of Underground Hydrogen Storage for Sustainable Energy Integration and Storage to Drive the Market Growth

Underground hydrogen storage offers several advantageous aspects. Firstly, it enhances energy storage capabilities, allowing excess renewable energy to be harnessed and stored as hydrogen, addressing intermittent power supply issues and contributing to a more stable and reliable energy grid. This promotes the transition towards sustainable energy sources. Secondly, this storage method helps optimize space usage, as it utilizes existing underground geological formations such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs or salt caverns. This prevents the need for large land areas, minimizing environmental impacts and land use conflicts. Moreover, underground storage ensures safety by reducing the risk of hydrogen leakage, as geological formations can act as natural barriers, containing the gas effectively. This supports the integration of hydrogen into various sectors without major safety concerns.  Additionally, underground storage enables flexibility in hydrogen distribution and utilization. Stored hydrogen can be efficiently transported through pipelines to various end-users, including industrial applications, transportation, and power generation, fostering the growth of a versatile hydrogen economy.


Challenges and Considerations in Underground Hydrogen Storage to Restrain the Market Growth

Challenges and considerations in underground hydrogen storage can act as significant restraints on the market's growth. One concern is geological complexity. The selection of suitable geological formations for storage can be challenging due to factors like porosity, permeability, and structural integrity. Unsuitable sites could risk leaks and security issues. Another issue is safety. Hydrogen, being a highly flammable gas, poses risks of explosion if not stored and managed carefully. Accidental leaks or ignition sources could lead to catastrophic incidents. Sealing and containment are also critical challenges. Ensuring a robust seal to prevent hydrogen migration and maintain structural integrity over time is vital. Failure could result in leaks and environmental contamination. Also, effective hydrogen storage often requires advanced technologies, such as underground salt caverns or depleted oil and gas reservoirs. Developing and maintaining such infrastructure demands substantial investment and expertise. Moreover, the leakage of hydrogen, a greenhouse gas, could contribute to global warming. Additionally, geological disturbances during storage site preparation might disrupt ecosystems.


Advancements in Underground Hydrogen Storage to Drive Excellent Opportunities for Future

Advancements in underground hydrogen storage are poised to create excellent opportunities for future market growth. Ongoing R&D efforts are aimed at improving the efficiency, safety, and cost-effectiveness of underground storage technology. Materials, monitoring systems, and containment procedures are being improved to overcome technical hurdles, making hydrogen storage more reliable and practical. These developments, together with increased expenditures in hydrogen infrastructure and rising demand for clean energy, are likely to create considerable potential for the spread of underground hydrogen storage solutions in the worldwide energy landscape. These developments not only improve hydrogen's viability as a clean energy carrier, but also open the door to new uses and markets, positioning underground hydrogen storage market for significant expansion in the coming years.

Global Underground Hydrogen Storage Market, by Type, 2022

The salt caverns sub-segment accounted for the highest market share in 2022. These caverns, formed by dissolving salt deposits, offer unique benefits that make them ideal for this purpose. Firstly, their impermeable nature prevents gas leakage, ensuring the safety and security of stored hydrogen. The natural barriers provided by the surrounding salt formation create a reliable containment system that minimizes the risk of environmental impact. Secondly, salt caverns have a high storage capacity. Their expansive cavities allow for significant volumes of hydrogen to be stored within a relatively compact underground space. This is crucial for meeting the demands of a hydrogen-driven economy. Furthermore, salt caverns exhibit excellent sealing properties. The self-healing capability of salt formations helps maintain structural integrity, reducing maintenance requirements and extending the lifespan of the storage facility. Moreover, their strategic locations often coincide with industrial hubs and transportation networks, facilitating the distribution and utilization of stored hydrogen. In addition, salt caverns offer favorable porosity and permeability characteristics, enabling efficient injection and withdrawal of hydrogen. This enhances the responsiveness and overall effectiveness of the storage system.

Global Underground Hydrogen Storage Market Share, by Region, 2022

The Europe underground hydrogen storage market generated the highest market share in 2022. Europe's prominence in the underground hydrogen storage market is underpinned by its strategic foresight and favorable geographical and geological factors. The continent's commitment to sustainable energy solutions propels its dominance in this arena. Europe's established expertise in energy innovation and transition plays a pivotal role, in fostering an environment conducive to the development and utilization of underground hydrogen storage technologies. The region's geological diversity offers ample opportunities for suitable storage sites. Depleted gas fields and salt caverns provide secure reservoirs for hydrogen, capitalizing on existing infrastructure. This minimizes the need for extensive infrastructure overhauls, saving time and resources. Moreover, Europe's emphasis on decarbonization fuels the demand for innovative energy storage systems like underground hydrogen storage. Regulatory frameworks promoting renewable energy adoption incentivize investment and research in this field. As Europe strives to reduce carbon emissions, hydrogen storage offers a reliable avenue to store excess renewable energy and mitigate intermittency issues. Collaborative efforts between governments, research institutions, and private enterprises foster knowledge sharing and technological advancements. This collective approach propels Europe to the forefront of underground hydrogen storage implementation.

Competitive Scenario in the Global Underground Hydrogen Storage Market

Agreement and investment are the two key strategies opted by the leading companies in this market. Some of the key market players are Linde AG, Air Liquide, Praxair, Inc., ITM Power, Iwatani Corporation, Hexagon Composites, McPhy Energy, Nel ASA, Chart Industries, Inc., and Gas Storage GmBH.



Historical Market Estimations


Base Year for Market Estimation


Forecast Timeline for Market Projection


Geographical Scope

North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and LAMEA

Segmentation by Type

  • Porous Media Storage
  • Salt Caverns
  • Engineered Cavities

Key Companies Profiled

  • Linde AG
  • Air Liquide
  • Praxair, Inc.
  • ITM Power
  • Iwatani Corporation
  • Hexagon Composites
  • McPhy Energy
  • Nel ASA
  • Chart Industries, Inc.
  • Gas Storage GmBH

Frequently Asked Questions

A. The size of the global underground hydrogen storage market was over $2,214.8 MCM in 2022 and is projected to reach $6,008.6 MCM by 2032.

A. Linde AG, Air Liquide, Praxair, Inc., ITM Power, Iwatani Corporation, and Hexagon Composites are the major companies in the underground hydrogen storage market.

A. Agreement and investment are the two key strategies opted by the operating companies in this market.

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