EV Battery Management System: Optimizing Safety and Life Span of a Battery for Greener Mobility
In the past few years, electric vehicles have emerged as a great alternative for a sustainable environment by protecting it from harmful emissions. These electric vehicles run on rechargeable battery packs that consist of several cell modules. Furthermore, the performance of an electric vehicle depends on lots of factors, such as battery life, health, safety, charging-discharging rates, and many more. An electric vehicle battery management system is designed to monitor and control various battery parameters to provide improved performance and durability of electric vehicles.
Nowadays, many developing countries are stepping ahead to manufacture electric vehicles for conserving the environment from further harmful emissions. Being the best alternative for mobility, the running of the electric vehicles completely depends upon the numerous parameters of the battery which is becoming a major concern for the manufacturers. Here comes the need for an electric vehicle battery management system that can monitor many variables of a battery used in e-bikes or e-vehicles, such as cell voltage, battery percentage, health, safety, charging-discharging rate, and many more.
An electric vehicle battery management system is an embedded system that can monitor every cell of the battery by using a complex algorithm. A battery management system can control and examine various parameters such as temperature, voltage, charge, etc., which is directly impacting the performance and longevity of the electric vehicle. By performing the task of managing and controlling the batteries used in the electric vehicle, the battery management system ensures the reliability and safe operation of the electric vehicle.
What is the Need for EV Battery Management System?
The main function of a battery management system (BMS) is to protect the battery from any kind of uncertainties and risks and provide optimum safety to the drivers and occupants. Furthermore, BMS is the control unit that delivers various commands to the motor controller and hence optimizes the power flow inside the batteries. It also optimizes the life span of the battery in the long run. Moreover, it delivers numerous benefits for the electric vehicle by providing high power density, low self-discharge, and reduced maintenance cost of the batteries.
What are the Key Responsibilities of the Electric Vehicle Battery Management System?
A battery is a very sensitive component that should be handled carefully. An unmonitored battery can become an explosive or can cause a fire which can be fatal for the vehicle owners and occupants. EV battery management system performs many tasks to protect customers from adverse impacts. Some of them are listed below:
- Performs Cell Monitoring: The EV battery management system has a number of algorithms that can calculate the state of charge (SOC) as well as the state of health (SOH) of the battery used in the electric vehicle. The charging, discharging, and overcharging are some crucial factors of the battery which need to be regulated properly for the efficient functioning of electric vehicles. BMS is the control unit that sends chains of commands to monitor the cell voltage and temperature for maintaining a healthy life of the battery.
- Enhances Safety of Electric Vehicle: In electric vehicles, the matter of concern is the proper connection between the proper power flow and battery management system. An unparalleled thermal runway can cause a huge mishap. As BMS can capture the set of data related to the battery such as voltage, current flow, temperature, and many more, it ensures the safety of the electric vehicle. In addition, it has a major role in protecting riders from electric shock by maintaining the insulation of the vehicle body from the battery pack.
- Power Optimization: The battery management system of electric vehicles keeps the SOC and SOH parameters of the battery within the specified range. This further helps to regulate the flow of power in each cell of the battery. At the time of charging BMS measures the amount of current suitable for the power generation. Similarly, during the time of discharging BMS ensures the level of voltage does not go below the level. It makes better communication with the motor controller for better power management.
- Enhances Battery Life: The cells inside the battery deteriorate often with time. With the help of a battery management system, it is quite easy to determine the fault in the charging pattern of the cells inside the battery. In addition, BMS helps to enhance the charging process of the cells at a lower voltage. This further helps in reducing the pressure on the entire battery pack and boosts its life.
Key Message Take Away
As a battery is the heart of an electric vehicle, researchers and scientists are focusing on the development of smart battery management systems for the electric vehicle to self-check the critical safety system of the electric vehicles. Moreover, smart BMS can accurately predict the conditions of the battery pack and prevent vehicle owners from catastrophic failures. All these factors are going to uplift the demand for BMS in the forthcoming years for a safer and green mode of mobility.
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