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Abrasives - types and working

Publish Date: March 23, 2020

Polishing, honing, drilling, lapping, grinding, buffing, cutting, sharpening, and sanding are popular uses for abrasive materials. Abrasives are materials used in scraping or hardening the mineral surfaces or in the abrasion and pounding of minerals.

Abrasives are compounds used in the smoothening of other weaker components by thorough grinding, molding or finishing by machining. They scrape the material surface to extract the required ruggedness or substances. Pumice, sandpaper, emery, and sand are common examples. Each of these minerals has a particular hardness, which allows a certain function to be accomplished. The mineral grit scale can be adjusted and wider grate sizes are ideal for more detailed exploration.

Types of Abrasives 

Two forms of abrasive are available.

1. Natural.

Natural abrasives are a rough material found in the earth and used in the molding or abrading of other products. Natural abrasives are very popular and commonly used in a broad range of commercial, domestic and technical applications. Abrasives usually contain corundum, garnet, flint, and emery, etc. They can be mined and processed in natural reserves for low alteration purposes. Natural abrasives are embedded in the surface of the earth as minerals and stone. For example, Garnet, Quartz, Diamond, and Corundum.

2. Synthetic or artificial

Synthetic abrasives are the result of extensive refining, like silicon carbide, synthetic diamond, and Alumina, of raw materials or chemical precursors. A variety of products with a very high hardness fall in the Artificial or Synthetic Abrasive group.

For example, Carborundum, Glass Fall, and Aluminum Oxide.

Uses of Abrasives

In a multitude of manufacturing sectors , from woodwork to metalworking and washing, abrasives are used. Sandpaper is the most commonly used abrasive for wood construction. However, it is also important to use other forms of abrasives. The finishing between coats is smoothed by steel wool. An abrasive nylon pad can work in the same way and can be re-used. It is mainly used to clean dishes. Eventually, pumice combined with some water is a nice way to smooth out the finished lacquer.

For a number of reasons, an abrasive is used in metalwork. The method is referred to as deburring if it is used to wear down a newly formed tool. Tumbling pieces in a barrel together with the selected abrasive are generally done by deburring, which is a painted abrasive like sandpaper, nonwoven goods, and stones. Hard minerals such as diamond or synthetic materials contain abrasives used for polishing a final product, although almost everything, like stone, walnut, and rubber, can become abrasive in less important methods.

Industrial Applications

Pressure blasting is an urban cleaning procedure. This technique controls the flow of abrasive elements by modification such as glass beads, steel grain or plastics through pressure tanks. Pressures up to 100PSi can be held to scrape off ships or to slice off defects from metallic objects. The surfaces of metals cloth, wood and stone have to be polished, ground and cleaned. Other materials, such as diamonds and carborundum, are an integral part of grinding, boring, and drilling. 

Furthermore, a bonded abrasive can be fused into a tough non-vitreous substrate through a vitreous substrate like heat or a resin-pressure abrasive. In most sectors bonded abrasives can be used. Across other engineering fields, they are used. The surfaces of metals cloth, wood and stone have to be polished, ground and cleaned. Other materials, such as diamonds and carborundum, are an integral part of grinding, boring, and drilling. 


Princy A. J

Princy holds a bachelor’s degree in Civil Engineering from the prestigious Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. University at Chennai, India. After a successful academic record, she pursued her passion for writing. A thorough professional and enthusiastic writer, she enjoys writing on various categories and advancements in the global industries. She plays an instrumental role in writing about current updates, news, blogs, and trends.